The history of Munich's actual theatre truly only begins at the end of the eighteenth century. Indeed, after over a century of infatuation for Italian opera, which was manifest in the construction of the Théâtre de la Cour (now called the Théâtre Cuvilliês, still active), local inhabitants began to feel the need for a German lyrical art. German repertoire, as Mozart appealed for, active in Munich especially during the premiere of his IDOMENEO, but also, a German theatre, since the Theatre de la Cour was limited to Italian art. The Napoleonic wars and King Maximilien I's sudden passion for the Odéon Theatre in Paris postponed this project.
The public thus waited until 1818 to discover its « National Theatre, » a subtle and luxurious synthesis of various styles: loggias in the Italian tradition cohabited with innovations from the French school of architecture. One of the noveltieswas a reservoir of water destined to be used in case of fire, but which nevertheless did not save the buildîng from flames in January 1823 ; the water was frozen! The Opera was reconstructed, financed by a special tax on beer: perhaps an original means but one yielding a particularly high return! After these rather tumultuous beginnings, the National Theatre reopened in 1825 and became the hotbed of German lyrical art. Four of Wagner's operas were premiered there between 1365 and 1870 (TRISTAN UND ISOLDE, Da MEISTERSINGER, DAS RHEINGOLD, and DIE WALKÜRE).
Wagner, of course, but also Mozart and Richard Strauss soon became the pillars of the Theatre's repertoire during the first half of the twentieth century, thanks to the talent of conductors such as Bruno Walter, Hans Knappertsbusch, and... Richard Strauss, himself a native of Munich. Strauss saw two of his operas premiered in his home town: FRIEDENSTAG (Peace Day, 1938!), and CAPRICCIO (1942). The libretto of the latter was elaborated with the help of the conductor Clemens Krauss, who was then Director of the Opera. The fact that the building was destroyed during the war did not prevent the company's tradition from being perpetuated.
Between 1952 and 1967, the institution was directed by Rudolf Hartmann, a former assistant to Richard Strauss and Clemens Krauss. The former 1818 edifice was reconstructed in 1963, after much hesitation as to whether or not to erect a modern hall. The long reign (1971-1992) of conductor Wolfgang Sawallisch, a distinguished representative of the tradition composed of rigour and commitment, is an example of the perserverance with which the Bayerische Staatsoper comes to terms with the legacy of its brilliant past.
OTELLO, A TOUCHING TALE OF LOVE AND TRAGEDY
Composed by renowned Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi, this is a four-act opera that has always been well-received by audiences. Verdi had retired after the roaring success of his work Aida, and came out of retirement to compose this opera. It was first performed in 1887 at La Scala in Milan.
Based on Shakespeare's play Othello, it is a tragic story of love that meets an unfortunate and untimely end at the hands of betrayal and manipulation. It highlights effects of jealousy- both personal and political- on the lives of the characters. String, woodwind, brass and percussion instruments are used to portray different emotions. The love duets towards the beginning of the opera have been known to be particularly touching.
The story is set in Cyprus in the late 15th Century and revolves around the relationship between the General Otello and his wife Desdemona. The scheming Iago is the villain in the story and it is due to his machinations that the tragedy is brought about. The tale deals with the important issues of politics, love and treachery- all relevant topics even today.
It starts with a storm in the sea as the Cypriots anxiously await the return of their general from battle. The storm and the tension are beautifully portrayed with percussion and brass instruments. The ship lands safely and Otello conveys the news of their victory. This establishes his position of authority. Iago's jealous hatred for him is revealed. The General's loving relationship with Desdemona is highlighted with melodious love duets.
In Act 2
Iago carries out his scheme of ruining the General. Iago plants the seed of doubt in the General's mind by implying that Desdemona is unfaithful to him. Previously dishonoured Captain, Cassio is cleverly framed as Desdemona's lover. Desdemona petitions for Cassio to be reinstated to his title and this is portrayed as a sign of her devotion to Cassio. The General is consumed with fury when Iago tells him that he had seen Desdemona's handkerchief in Cassio's apartment.
It sees heightened action as Iago presents the stolen handkerchief as false proof. Blinded by jealousy, the General takes Iago's statements at their face value. He confronts Desdemona and is convinced of her guilt though she denies it. Anger and rage takes precedence over love.
Desdemona's beautiful prayer shows acceptance of her fate and heralds the tragic culmination of events. The General, in his anger, takes a step that he will soon regret. Iago's treachery is eventually revealed. A horrified Othello has a crushing moment of realisation, but it is already too late for the lovers. Melancholy notes underline the tragedy of the tale and brings the opera to a close.
Verdi's version of this famous Shakespearean play has been critically acclaimed and is definitely worth watching.
Otello, The General: Tenor
Desdemona, his wife: Soprano
Iago, his subordinate: Baritone
Cassio, dishonoured Captain: Tenor
Emilia, Iago's wife and Desdemona's maid: Mezzo Soprano
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